Behavioral Disorders (BDH) Manuscript of the Year

Vulnerable Decision Points for Disproportionate Office Discipline Referrals:

Comparisons of Discipline for African American and White Elementary School Students

by: Keith Smolkowski*, Erik J. Girvan*, Kent Mcintosh*, Rhonda N. T. Nese, Robert H. Horner (* in podcast)

Vol 41, Issue 4, 2016


Racial disparities in rates of exclusionary school discipline are well documented and seemingly intractable. However, emerging theories on implicit bias show promise in identifying effective interventions. In this study, we used school discipline data from 1,666 elementary schools and 483,686 office discipline referrals to identify specific situations in which disproportionality was more likely. Results were largely consistent with our theoretical model, indicating increased racial and gender disproportionality for subjectively defined behaviors, in classrooms, and for incidents classified as more severe. The time of day also substantially affected disproportionality. These findings can be used to pinpoint specific student-teacher interactions for intervention.


Click here to access Teacher Resources page for podcast of the authors discussing their research

(Thanks to Bryan Cook and Daniel Maggin [BDH Co-Editors] and  Shayna Citrenbaum [SAGE Publishing])



7th World Conference on Violence in Schools and Public Policies
7th Biennial Conference of the Quebec Committee for Youth with Behavioural Difficulties(CQJDC)




Click here to submit abstracts



4th Annual

Teacher Educators for Children with Behavioral Disorders (TECBD) Conference

October 26-28, 2017 
Tempe, AZ


All proposals must be submitted by July 1, 2017.

Click the link below to submit:
TECBD 2017 Proposal Submission




The Top Ten Tips for Meeting with Elected Officials:

Be Prepared, Be on Time
Be Clear and Concise
Personal Impressions Matter
Respect their Response
Materials for All
Let's Keep in Touch
Parting Words
How Did It Go
Following Up




How to join CCBD

2017 TECBD / CCBD Conference
World Conference on Violence in Schools and Public Policies
CCBD Journal Announcement
CCBD Foundation Grants & Funding

Twitter Feed

Tool of the Week

  • This week marks the first day of summer! For many of us, temperatures outside are rising, but this time of year can also mean tensions inside are rising as final exams or state testing schedules progress. To help cool things off, this weeks FREE tool is a simple set of breathing exercises for you to ...
  • The IEP is the central document guiding students special education supports and services. But the document itself can feel overwhelming with all of its moving parts. To demystify the IEP and its purpose, this weeks FREE tool describes all of the essential parts of the IEP. Tack it to your conference room wall, pass it ...
  • We all have conflict in our lives. It may be as minor as picking out a shirt to wear or as big as negotiating a divorce in the family. As part of an effective transition to life after high school, students need to know how to diffuse conflict by communicating their feelings in an assertive ...
  • Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can exhibit a range of challenging behaviors in early childhood, with temper tantrums being one of the highest occurring problems and aggressive behaviors more common among those children with minimal language abilities. This weeks FREE tool is a figure illustrating the various challenging behaviors that young children with ASD ...

Facebook Feed




CCBD is calling for nominations for four open Executive Committee positions. Full descriptions of each office are available. CLICK HERE FOR MORE INFORMATION


After several years of careful consideration and planning, we are pleased to announce and celebrate the transition of the Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders (CCBD) Journals, Behavioral Disorders (BD) and Beyond Behavior, to the Hammill Institute on Disabilities (a non-profit, public charity).  CLICK HERE FOR MORE INFORMATION


The CCBD Professional Development Committee is proud to partner with the Teacher Educators for Children with Behavioral Disorders (TECBD) Conference to offer exciting new programming at TECBD this year. TECBD will be held at Tempe Mission Palms Hotel in Tempe, AZ October 20-22, 2016. The keynote for this year's conference is CCBD member, Greg Benner. CLICK HERE FOR MORE INFORMATION

Policy Insider: Legislative Update

  • The Republican bill to repeal and replace the Affordable Care Act is on a fast track. A small group of Republican Senators are working behind closed doors and the news that has “leaked” is alarming. The Senate bill potentially could be worse than the House passed bill and will include Medicaid per capita caps. It has been rumored that the bill has been sent to the Congressional Budget Office and the score may be ready early next week. The Senate bill could come to the floor for debate and a vote as early as next Thursday. CEC is concerned about...

Find CEC Online

Follow Us on Twitter Find Us on Facebook CEC on Pinterest Join Us on LinkedIn Find Us on YouTube