Kristine J. Melloy, Ph.D. - President CCBD Executive Committee
The holiday season is upon us and regardless of one’s culture or background, we are inundated with tidings of good will and deals on store items that seem too good to pass up – after all it is the season for giving! The focus of my President’s message this December is on wishes for changes that will positively impact the lives of students with EBD and therefore, all of us.
Wish Number One: Re-Authorize ESEA
Now that the President has been re-elected and he and the Congress can get back to work, it is time to reauthorize the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) aka NCLB. Last summer, Congress granted a stop gap measure in place of the re-authorization of the ESEA. We have been waiting for re-authorization since 2007. Frankly, many of the educational policies and practices of ESEA have had the effect of pushing students out of school and toward juvenile and criminal justice systems creating a school to prison pipeline rather than a school to college pipeline (Federal policy, Dec. 2010). Especially effected are students of color and students with disabilities, mainly, African American boys with EBD (CCBD, 2012). With the stop gap measure enacted in Summer 2012, states were allowed to apply for waivers from accountability that focused solely on students’ standardized test performance. Twenty-six of the 36 states who applied were granted waivers that allow, among other things, broadening their accountability and assessment system through a variety of forms that are better able to provide useful information for school improvement.
The waivers allow states to ensure college and career readiness for all students by moving to college and career readiness academic standards and creating next generation academic assessments. The waivers give states the flexibility to design their accountability that broadens student evaluation that can be based on multiple sources of diverse evidence including standardized test results but not limited to those results. Evidence from classroom performance and studied using models such as those practiced by Professional Learning Communities using data-based decision making will have a profound effect on student achievement that leads to proficient summative assessment results for all, not just a few(Decision making for results, 2008). These practices will move our students out of the school to prison pipeline and into the school to college pipeline.
Wish Number Two: Every Teacher Teach Literacy and Math Based on the Common Core
The school to college pipeline demands that every teacher teach literacy and math based on the Common Core. Every student needs to be taught to read and do math across the curriculum and every teacher is a literacy and math teacher. Having high expectations for academic achievement is key to closing the achievement gap (Lochman et. al., 2012; Mathur & Schoenfeld, 2010; Montague, Enger, Cavendish & Castro, 2011; Oakes, Mathur & Lane, 2010; Turton, Umbreit & Mathur, 2011; Vostal, 2011; Xu & Coats, 2012).
Focusing on turning around underperforming schools and ensuring that every child has access to great teachers will also work to close the achievement gap and bring students with EBD closer to achieving their dreams. So many of you work hard every day to teach the teachers and do the research that informs the practice of education for kids with EBD. It takes the professors and the practitioners to educate our kids with EBD and to prepare them for the institutes of higher learning rather than the mental health and corrections institutions.
Unfortunately, I still hear from teachers and others that when it comes to students with EBD ‘we have to address the student’s behavior before we can work on academics.’ Where is that idea coming from? No one is teaching about that in the university. It is not an evidenced based idea. Any teacher who thinks and acts that way may be hiding behind the fear of teaching and getting the job done that they were hired to do. Most importantly, the potential of kids is being wasted. Ok, enough of that. Here are ideas about what can be done right now to increase academic achievement of kids with EBD and CCBD is in the forefront of promoting these ideas through their professional development offerings, publications and advocacy.
Teach reading and math until the students get it – not just through 3rd grade. If students don’t know how to read and do math at and above grade level, keep teaching them even if they are in middle school and high school. Offer high level, rigorous courses to all students, not just the ‘smart kids.’ Double literacy and math time even in middle and high school settings. Teach time and project management skills. Teach self-discipline. Require non-fiction writing in every class. Increase student feedback – in fact, timely and meaningful feedback has the greatest effect size of anything teachers can do to effect student achievement (Reeves, 2006).
Wish Number Three: Pair Academic and Social Achievement
Kids with EBD will make the most gains in academic achievement when academic instruction is paired with instruction aimed at improving social achievement through social emotional learning and behavior change programs (Harjusola-Webb, Parke Hubbell & Bedesem, 2012; Siperstein, Wiley & Forness, 2011; Snider & Battalio, 2011). Addressing mental health issues and academic achievement issues simultaneously –not one then the other through collaboration with mental health and education professionals in school settings.
CCBD, CEC and The IDEA Partnership provide excellent resources to teachers for professional development and understanding the common core and how it fits students with EBD. CCBD journals, Behavioral Disorders and Beyond Behavior are full of evidenced based ideas for instruction that leads to academic and social achievement for kids with EBD.
Wish Number Four: Keep Kids with EBD In School
Having high academic expectations for students with EBD is one thing and planning the greatest lessons in the world is fun but you need the students to be in school in order to teach them. It is appalling to note that across the country the majority of students who are most likely to be suspended and who spend the most time out of school for being suspended are African American boys who are EBD (CCBD, 2012). We know that improving school climate and engaging students through supportive and culturally relevant systems such as those found in Positive Behavior Intervention and Support (PBIS) systemic schools will result in a move away from exclusionary disciplinary practices (Allday et.al., 2012; Haydon & Musti-Rao, 2011; MacSuga & Simonsen, 2011; Simonsen & Jeffrey-Pearsall, 2011; Stormount & Reinke, 2012; Vannest, Burke, Sauber, Davis & Davis, 2011). This stuff works and yet the numbers haven’t gone down. How about this? What if every teacher in the university and k-12 setting were trained to have Courageous Conversations (Singleton & Linton, 2006) and then held each other to the Four Agreements of
(1) Staying Engaged,
(2) Experiencing Discomfort
(3) Speaking your truth, and
(4) Expecting/Accepting Non-closure?
And, further, wonder if in those same settings everyone agreed to live with the Six Conditions of the courageous conversations of:
- 1. Focusing on the personal, local and immediate,
- 2. Isolating race,
- 3. Normalizing social construction and multiple perspectives,
- 4. Monitoring agreements, conditions and estabilishing parameters,
- 5. Using a working definition of race,
- 6. And examining the presence and role of 'whiteness'
All this in order to engage, sustain and deepen interracial dialogue about race (Beyond diversity, 2012). What would happen to our schools where the adults and kids understood each other and what cultural competence really meant? Perhaps, exclusionary disciplinary practices including suspension, restraint and seclusion – ideas that are meant to keep our kids with EBD out of the classroom – especially African American boys – would be used less often and find ways to keep kids in the classroom so they can have a fighting chance to realize their dreams, purpose in life, and their potential. Teachers, be a warm demander (Xu & Coats, 2012). Keep your students engaged. Keep them in your classrooms and in school.
Wish Number Five: Reduce Disproportionality
All of this is overshadowed by the extent and status of disproportionality of Special Education as it relates to students with EBD, especially boys who are African American (CCBD, 2012). Over and over these students are denied their right to a free and appropriate public education because of their disability and the color of their skin that translates into loss of dreams, purpose and potential. A disproportionate number of African American boys are identified throughout the US schools as qualifying for EBD services. Why ?– refer to my previous comments about school climate and student engagement. Fortunately, CCBD is a forerunner in what to do about this and provides a position paper (see our website at ccbd.net/publications) and recommendations about what to do to rectify this issue. When we collaborate with our regular education colleagues and help them understand behavior challenges within the regular education classroom, teachers can work together to develop interventions and strategies that can work in a multi tiered system of support within the regular classroom (MTSS) before going to the automatic referral to special education and out of regular education (Allday et. al., 2012).
Wish Number Six: Do What You Love and Love What You Do
A few years ago I left my work as a full professor at a university where I had been paying it forward to my teachers as a teacher of teachers of students with EBD in order to found an inner city college preparatory high school. The population of the high school consisted mainly of African American and Latino kids who could not read or do math on grade level but who dreamed of going to college and getting good jobs that would get them out of poverty and keep them out of gangs and jail. My closest colleagues– heck I thought I was crazy – for leaving my work at the university. This is why I left. I left the university setting because I was asked and because my teachers would have expected no less from me.
I’m happy to say that even though I have moved onto other adventures in education, the high school I co-founded continues to be successful and graduated its second class in June 2012. So far, 111 students have gone on to realize their dream of going onto college and are on a trajectory of realizing their purpose and potential in life. There is no reason that this can’t happen with every one of our youth with EBD because every kid has teachers who believe in them and in spite of all we can’t control there is so much we can control to keep moving them forward. There is a reason that at my age I took a desk job. Back in the day, it was not unusual for me to jump from the floor to the desktop to get my students’ attention and to keep them engaged – I did that more than once – whether it was with my class of little boys with EBD or a class of graduate students studying to be EBD teachers. I don’t do that anymore but it was one thing I did to engage students. You have got to engage your students somehow and keep them in class to teach them. I keep fighting the fight for the students. I still have great passion after 36 years in this vocation and so do you. Do what you love and love what you do. It makes such a difference in everyone’s lives.
The other day, I met with a PLC in a Juvenile Correction Facility. Then I went over to an EBD separate site for their PLC meeting. The day after that, I met with a secondary PLC at an EBD separate site for kids with significant psychiatric disorders. The focus of all of these PLCs is the English Language Arts Common Core and social emotional learning. All of the PLCs were in various states of cohesiveness, disarray and dysfunction – much like our kids with EBD and it is my job to get them on course and to keep them moving forward. In the end, we use data to make decisions about kids’ instruction and keep moving them forward. It seems to be noble work and I love it and it seems to love me. You need to ask yourself – are you doing all you can to effect kids lives positively? Are you helping them to realize their dreams? Their purpose. Their potential in life.
Final Wish: Good Things for All
This holiday season I’ve shared with you a few wishes for our kids with EBD. The wishes are big ones but if we don’t put them out into the universe then they won’t be realized. Our kids with EBD need us to wish good things for them.
I wish good things for you too,
Allday, R.A., Hinkson-Lee, K., Hudson, T., Neilsen-Gatti, S., Leinke, A. & Russel, C.S. (2012). Training general educators to increase behavior specific praise: Effects on students with EBD. Behavioral Disorders, 37.
Beyond Diversity: Coaching for Racial Equity (2012). Pacific Educational Group, Inc. San Francisco, CA.
CCBD (April 11, 2012). Federal Policy on Disproportionality in Special Education. The Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders, Council for Exceptional Children. www.CCBD.net
Decision making for results: Data-driven decision making, 2nd Edition (2008). The Leadership and Learning Center, Englewood, CO.
Federal policy, ESEA reauthorization, and the school-to-prison pipeline (Dec., 2010). A joint position paper: Advancement Project Education Law Center – PA, FairTest, The Forum for Education and Democracy, Juvenile Law Center and NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc.
Haydon, T. & Musti-Rao, S. (2011). Effective use of behavior specific praise: A middle school case study. Beyond Behavior, 20, 31-39.
Harjusola-Webb, S., Parke Hubbell, S., Bedesem, P. (2012). Increasing prosocial behaviors of young children with disabilities in inclusive classrooms using a combination of peer-mediated intervention and social narratives.Beyond Behavior, 21, 29-36.
Lochman, J.E., Boxmeyer, C.L., Powell, N.P., Qu, L., Well,K. & Windle, M. (2012). Coping power dissemination study: Intervention and special education effects on academic outcomes. Behavioral Disorders, 37, 192-205.
MacSuga, A., & Simonsen, B. (2011). Increasing teachers’ use of evidence-based classroom management strategies through consultation: overview and case studies. Beyond Behavior, 20, 4-12.
Mathur, S. & Schoenfeld, N. (2010). Effective instructional practices in juvenile justice facilities. Behavioral Disorders, 36, 20-27.
Montague, M., Enger, C., Cavendish, W. & Castro, M. (2011). Academic and behavioral trajectories for at-risk adolescents in urban schools. Behavioral Disorders, 36, 141-156.
Oakes, W., Mathur, S. & Lane, K. (2010). Reading interventions for students with challenging behavior: A focus on fluency. Behavioral Disorders, 35, 120-139.
Reeves, D. (2006). The learning leader: How to focus school improvement for better results. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Singleton, G. & Linton, C. (2006). Courageous conversations about race. Corwin Press, Thousand Oaks, CA.
Simonson, B., Jeffrey-Pearsall, J., Sugai, G.& McCurdy, B. (2011). Alternative setting-wide positive behavior support. Behavioral Disorders, 36.
Siperstein, G., Wiley, A.L. & Forness, S.R. (2011). School context and the academic and behavioral progress of students with emotional disturbance. Behavioral Disorders, 36, 172-184.
Snider, V.E. & Battalio, R. (2011). Application of academic design principles to social skills instruction. Beyond Behavior, 21, 10-19.
Stormont, M. & Reinke, W.M. (2012). Using coaching to support classroom-level adoption and use of interventions within school-wide positive behavioral interventions and support systems. Beyond Behavior, 21, 11-19.
Turton, A.M., Umbreit, J. & Mathur, S.R. (2011). Systemic function based intervention for adolescents with emotional and behavioral disorders in an alternative setting: Broadening the context. Behavioral Disorders, 36, 117-128.
Vannest, K.J., Burke, M.D. , Sauber, S.B., Davis, J.L., Davis, C. R. (2011). Daily behavior report cards as evidence-based practice for teachers. Beyond Behavior, 20, 13-21.
Vostal, B.R. (2011). Engaging students with behavior disorders in mathematics practice using the high-p strategy. Beyond Behavior, 21, 3-9.
Xu, J. & Coats, L. (Aug. 27, 2012) How effective science teachers handle homework. Cited in Marshall Memo 449, p 3.
How to Make Classroom Timeouts More Effective
Joe Ryan, VP CCBD Executive Committee
Teachers of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) frequently use time-out as part of their behavior management plan. When implemented properly, time-out procedures can be effective in reducing maladaptive behaviors across a wide range of student populations. From a behaviorist perspective, time-out is defined as a behavior reduction procedure or form of punishment in which students are denied access to all opportunities for reinforcement, contingent upon their displaying inappropriate behavior (Alberto & Troutman, 2006). Teachers however more commonly think of time-out as a procedure to allow a student to calm down by being quiet and being separated from his or her peers. Regardless of these popular definitions, a wide range of variations of this procedure is currently implemented in schools across the United States. Two of the most popular types of timeout include inclusion and exclusion. In inclusion timeout, the student continues to observe classroom instruction, but is denied an opportunity to participate in activities or receive reinforcement from either peers or the teacher. In exclusion time-out, the student is repositioned away from his or her peers where s/he can no longer monitor academic instruction (e.g., seated in chair outside the classroom).
If you elect to use timeout as a behavioral intervention, it is important to understand the procedure will only be effective if the “time-in environment” is more reinforcing for the student than being placed in timeout (Ryan, Sanders, Katsiyannis & Yell, 2007). Therefore, if a student does not wish to be included or participate in a classroom activity, it is unlikely that using timeout will modify the student’s maladaptive behavior. Hence, teachers should strive to ensure there is a meaningful difference between the level of reinforcement a student receives during time-in and timeout. To help make a classroom more reinforcing teachers can: (a) increase the ratio of positive comments (e.g., “good try Johnny”) to negative comments (e.g., “stop talking”), and (b) incorporate effective teaching strategies. It’s recommend teachers strive for a 5 to 1 ratio of positive to negative comments. Research indicates that classes where teachers use a strongly positive reinforcement ratio often have fewer behavior problems. This focus on a student’s positive attributes helps the student better understand what behaviors are expected, increases on-task behaviors, and creates a more positive atmosphere in the classroom. Unfortunately, research has also shown that in many of today’s classrooms the number of negative comments or reprimands for inappropriate behaviors far exceed the number of positive reinforcing comments made by teachers. So in summary teachers should strive on making their classrooms more positively reinforcing, which in turn will benefit both the student and teacher.
Best wishes for a safe and happy holiday season.
Alberto, P., & Troutman, A. (2012). Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers, (9th ed.), Columbus, OH: Prentice-Hall-Merrill.
Ryan, J.B., Sanders, S., Katsiyannis, A. & Yell, M. L. (2007). Using timeout effectively in the classroom. Teaching Exceptional Children, 39(4), 60-67.
Bullying and EBD
Jennifer E. Christensen (Eastern Kentucky University)
Jonte (JT) Taylor (Pennsylvania State University)
Bullying. The term has become a rallying cry, buzz word, conversation starter, lead news story, and scapegoat. Some have gone so far as to call bullying an epidemic. Whether bullying is truly an epidemic or not, hyperbole aside, bullying has been identified as a serious and consistent problem that results in a variety of negative, even dire, consequences. Most research suggests that bullying perpetration and victimization has increased steadily over the past two decades. Accurately assessing levels of bullying behavior or the amount of increase in bullying and victimization has been akin to holding smoke in one’s hands (i.e. nearly impossible). Attempting to measure the amount of bullying behavior, as with most assessment, depends heavily on the theoretical framework in which the assessment is done, and the operational definition being utilized. Surveys indicate that students reported being victims of bullying ranging from twenty-five to seventy-seven percent (Rose, Espelage, & Monda-Amaya, 2009).
The increased attention to bullying behavior and victimization has also seen an increase in the misuse of the term bullying. In recent instances, the term bullying has been sensationalized and overused to describe any instance of harassment. Fortunately, bullying behavior has been established as comprising certain specific components. There are three elements that constitute bullying behavior including the repetition of negative behaviors against another over time, intentional behaviors designed to oppress another, and the notion of imbalance of power between the bully and victim (e.g., size, age, social group acceptance, etc.). In addition to the components that define bullying, consideration must be made regarding the type(s) of bullying that students may become victims of. There are, generally considered, five types of bullying behavior, identified as: 1) physical; 2) social/relational; 3) verbal; 4) sexual; and 5) cyber. Along with the characteristics and types of bullying, another consideration is the roles associated with bullying in which students self-identify. Also known as the bully-victim continuum (Espelage & Swearer, 2004), students have consistently indicated that they fall into the roles of either bully, victim, bully-victim, and/or bystander.
Bullying & Students with Disabilities
Approximately 13% of the school population exhibits bullying behaviors. Research that has been conducted on bully perpetration indicates that students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) demonstrate the highest levels of perpetration when comparing students with and without disabilities. Bullying perpetration by students with disabilities is often a learned behavior, possibly a reaction to prolonged victimization or an overall lack of social skills. They also may engage in perpetration to protect themselves from further victimization or because they have learned the behavior in other social situations (e.g., family structure, social acquaintances). So, although some students with disabilities perpetrate bullying, others might be considered provocative victims. The provocative victim develops bullying characteristics as a result of exposure to victimization and is often described as having internalizing and externalizing behavior problems, being reactively aggressive, maintaining poor interpersonal relationships, or displaying a negative demeanor. Some researchers have suggested that students with disabilities display more bullying and/or aggressive behaviors (physical, verbal) than students without disabilities. Students with emotional and behavioral disorders are not only more likely to be bullied and experience more severe victimization than students without disabilities or with other disabilities, but may also themselves become bullies. According to Gumpel & Sutherland (2010), individuals with EBD are just as likely to be aggressors as they are to be victims. Cho, Hendrickson, and Mock (2009) reported that 60% of students with EBD were identified as bullies, victims, or bully-victims.
The Social-Ecological Model & Classroom-Specific Interventions
Using a social-ecological framework, research has suggested that the domains within the framework are interdependent and influence each other as it relates to bullying and victimization. The social-ecological domains of society, community, peer group, school, family, and individual, are areas that factor into bullying behavior and into each of the roles on the bully-victim continuum. The domains associated with the social-ecological model attempt to highlight areas for dealing with bullying behavior. Although it is generally considered accounted for in the school domain, the argument can be made that an additional domain of classroom could be added to the model. Interventions in this additional domain of classroom could be focused specifically for teachers to use and/or implement.
Many students with EBD have problems in the areas of socially interacting with others, self-regulating their behavior responses, and self-monitoring their own behavior.Typically, students with EBD have shown to have poor social skills which negatively affect academic and non-academic performance situations in classroom settings. The lack of social skills may lead students with EBD to be both victims and perpetrators of bullying. Therefore, teachers of students with EBD would benefit from learning how to teach social skills either through commercial or non-commercial means. Students who exhibit behavioral concerns are characterized by an inability to self-regulate emotional and behavioral responses to their environments. Because students with EBD demonstrate difficulties in self-regulation of behavior and emotions, how to mange one’s feelings and behavior and how to get along with other people are essential components of a curriculum for students with emotional and behavior disorders. Self-monitoring has been shown to be an effective strategy at reducing problem behaviors and has been used successfully by both general and special education teachers. Self- monitoring strategies are examples of positive behavioral interventions. Self-monitoring strategies have been used to address a variety of behaviors, including classroom preparation behaviors, disruptive behavior, following directions, academic engagement, and off-task behaviors. Self-monitoring interventions have also been used successfully with students with a variety of diagnostic and labeling categories, including learning disabilities, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and severe emotional disturbances.
Whether implemented as a class wide approach or individual approach, teaching students social skills, self-regulatory skills, and self-monitoring skills in an organized, cohesive, intentional manner has been shown to mitigate the effects of the emotional or behavior disturbance on the behavior of the individual. Research continues to show positive results of intentional implementation of these types of programs on the social interaction and well-being of both students with and without disabilities.
Cho, J., Hendrickson, J. M., & Mock, D. R. (2009). Bullying status and behavior patterns of preadolescents and adolescents with behavioral diorders. Education and Treatment of Children, 32, 655-671.
Espelage, D. L., & Swearer, S. M. (2004). Bullying in American schools: A socioecological perspective on precention and intervention. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Gumpel, T. P., & Sutherland, K. S. (2010). The relation between emotional and behavioral disorders and school-based violence. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 15, 349-356.
Rose, C. A., Espelage, D. L., & Monda-Amaya, L. E. (2009). Bullying and victimization rates among students in general and special education: A comparative analysis. Educational Psychology, 29(7), 761-776.
R2P - Research 2 Practice
Heather Davis, Texas A & M University
In this issue of R2P (Research to Practice) we checked out the recent study by Gage, Lewis, & Steitcher on Functional Behavioral Assessment-Based Interventions for Students with or At Risk for Emotional and/or Behavioral Disorders in School: A Hierarchical Linear Modeling Meta-Analysis. This article appears in the recent issue of Behavioral Disorders (Issue 37, vol 2).
Functional behavior assessment (FBA) procedures in school settings are a widely used and broadly defined set of procedures. The intent of an FBA is to identify the function of a behavior in order to develop interventions which increase appropriate behavior and decrease aberrant behavior. This article provides evidence establishing FBAs as an evidence based treatment. In this column we break down the key points and provide some suggestions for using this information in daily practice in school and clinical settings.
Gage, Lewis, & Stichter (2012) looked at 69 studies and determined that 70.5% of the 146 participants demonstrated improved behaviors when using FBA procedures in identification and implementation of selected behavioral interventions. The authors identified specific components in FBA procedures which were most important in seeing results. While FBA-based interventions are effective with the use of descriptive or functional analysis, FBA’s which include experimental assessments resulted in better outcomes than using only descriptive assessments. This is important news for us in the field for when functional analysis of behavior is omitted from the FBA procedure the intervention identification and implementation could be less effective.
What exactly is a functional analysis you might ask? A functional analysis in lay terms is:
- 1. Define or operationalize the problem behavior
- 2. Determine the function of the behavior
- a). escape from attention, activities, or objects
- b). obtain attention, activities, or objects
- 3. Test the hypothesis through experimentation
In addition, this meta-analysis identified that replacement behavior are also important in improving outcomes. To add replacement behavior steps to the functional analysis:
- 4. Select a replacement behavior which matches the reason (function) the behavior continues to occur
- 5. Teach the student the replacement beahvior
- 6. Document progress
For more information on this and other interesting studies check out the latest issue of Behavioral Disorders and see how you might incorporate this research into your practice.
Publications Committee Update
I must admit that I'm feeling rather jolly this season. CCBD publications are in fine shape and in good collective hands. Our journal Beyond Behavior continues to provide cutting edge practitioner support under the guidance of editors Tim Landrum and Peter Alter. Editors Kevin Sutherland and Maureen Conroy are producing timely and important issues of our flagship research journal, Behavioral Disorders. Erika Blood, our new newsletter editor, is right on top of things and has great new ideas for communication with our members.
Unfortunately, the Publications Committee has lost two valuable members. Douglas Cullinan and Jeffery Anderson have left the committee after serving the limit of two terms (6 years). I want to thank them personally and publicly for jumping in to do the tough work when it was necessary.
Thankfully, Kimberly Vannest continues with the committee and Donna Janney has agreed to serve a second 3 year term. We've also added two new members, Nicholas Gage and Mickie Wong-Lo. Finally, thanks to all who expressed an interest in serving on the publications committee. Stay in touch; there will be two more positions available on the publications committee this summer!
Post-Election: A Look Ahead for Education
Myrna Mandlawitz, Legislative Consultant
From the points of view of the pundits and the public, what seemed to be the longest campaign in history is now behind us. The results of the election will not dramatically change the numbers in Congress, but hopefully both parties will be more inclined to compromise to move the country forward. The Democrats retained their majority in the Senate with 53 seats, and 2 Independents will most likely caucus with the Democrats. The Republicans maintained their majority in the House, currently holding 233 seats to the Democrats' 193. At this writing several seats were still undecided.
Changes in Committees
Since the party majorities did not change in the respective chambers, the parties of the committee chairmen also remain the same. In addition to the usual shifts of committee membership, there are a few significant changes that could affect education policy.
- Ranking Democrat on House Appropriations, Rep. Norm Dicks (WA), retired. Representatives Nita Lowey (NY) and Marcy Kaptur (OH) are competing for this key spot. Lowey has been a key player for a long time on the Labor-Health and Human Services-Education Appropriations Subcommittee.
- Representative Denny Rehberg (R-MT), chairman of the Labor-HHS-Education Appropriations Subcommittee, left the House in an unsuccessful bid to unseat Senator Tester (D-MT). That chairmanship is extremely important for advocates of education funding. Current rumors are that Rep. Rodney Alexander (R-LA) may want the job.
- House Budget Committee chairman Paul Ryan (R-WI) is term-limited out of his chairmanship but could ask for a waiver to continue in that position. Given his stature in the party, it is likely such a waiver would be granted. The Ryan budget proposed for Fiscal Year 2013 would cut education over two years by 19%.
- Senator Thad Cochran (R-MS), ranking member on the Appropriations Committee is also term-limited out of that spot. Senator Shelby (R-AL) will likely take his place. His staff is very knowledgeable and has a strong working relationship with the Democratic staff on the committee.
- The Senate Health, Education, Labor and Pensions (HELP) Committee loses its current ranking member Senator Mike Enzi (R-WY) to another term limit. He will be replaced by Senator Lamar Alexander (R-TN), former Secretary of Education under President George H.W. Bush.
- On an interesting note, Senator Shelby (R-AL) is the current ranking member on the Senate Labor-HHS-Education Appropriations Subcommittee. Since he will be ranking member on the full Committee, he will probably move from the subcommittee. Senator Alexander could take his place, giving Alexander the dual role of ranking member on both the education authorizing and appropriations committees. Senator Tom Harkin (D-IA) holds the chairmanship of HELP and the chairmanship of the appropriations subcommittee. This would set up an unusual and interesting dynamic for education policymaking.
- Finally, Senate Budget Chairman Kent Conrad (D-ND) has retired, and Senator Patty Murray (D-WA) is expected to assume the chairmanship.
Staff Prognostications on Education
In a post-election forum sponsored by the Committee for Education Funding (CEF), Hill staff looked ahead to education authorizing and funding activity. On the spending front, Bill Dauster, staff to Senator Majority Leader Reid (D-NV), said Senate Democrats are not likely to look to non-defense discretionary programs, such as education, for more budget cuts.
Michael Gamel-McCormick, majority K-12 staff person on the HELP Committee, cited a number of major education-related laws overdue or due this year for reauthorization. These include the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), the Higher Education Act (HEA), Perkins Career and Technical Education Act, the Education Science Reform Act (education research), Workforce Investment Act, the Child Care Development Block Grant, and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Chairman Harkin has stated his intention to continue with ESEA as a priority. The Senate will begin with last year's bill, including ensuring subgroups are protected. However, they will also need to examine the law regarding changes to adequate yearly progress in the ESEA waivers.
Lindsay Hunsicker, lead HELP Republican staff for outgoing ranking member Enzi, said the Senator will continue to be active on the Committee. His interests include holding hearings on ESEA waivers and possibly decoupling common core standards from federal education policy.
Finally, Julie Peller, Democratic staff on the House Education and Workforce Committee, said no decisions have been made about a replacement for Representative Dale Kildee (D-MI) as ranking member on the Early Childhood, Elementary and Secondary Subcommittee. Representative Kildee retired this year after over 30 years in Congress. A former teacher, he was a consistent advocate for children and families.
Once the 112th Congress finishes the lame duck session – and hopefully deals with the serious fiscal issues facing the country – we will turn to the 113th Congress. In early February the President will present his budget for Fiscal Year 2014, although final appropriations for FY2013 have yet to be settled. On to a new year!
Watch CCBD Past President featured in ABC News Special
Susan Fread Albrecht, Ed.D., NCSP, Chair, CCBD Advocacy and Governmental Relations Committee
Dr. Michael George, executive director of the Centennial School in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, was a key figure in a December ABC News investigation of alternatives to the use of restraints and seclusion in schools. Dr. George’s school is a working positive behavioral model of techniques to redirect students who act out.
The Centennial School relies on prevention measures to prevent the occurrence of aggressive behaviors and the development of antisocial behavior. Teachers are trained to observe student behavior in its early stages of agitation and employ problem-solving strategies such as removing other students from the area and giving the agitated student a requested break from class to calm down rather than waiting to react with intrusive measures.
CCBD has lead advocacy efforts to bring the misuse of restraints and seclusion to the forefront of public awareness and political action. CCBD members Dr. George and Dr. Reece Peterson were invited speakers before the U.S. House Committee on Education and Labor and Dr. Joseph Ryan spoke before a White House committee as advocates for responsive and responsible policy on the use of restraints and seclusion, making specific recommendations in those venues. CCBD’s position paper on restraints and seclusion served as a model for recommended policy of our parent Council for Exceptional Children. To date, four states ban all forms of seclusion and 11 have enacted state laws limiting restraint to emergencies involving an immediate risk of physical harm. Efforts to pass federal legislation aimed at establishing a uniform national standard are spearheaded by Rep. George Miller (D.-California) and Sen. Tom Harking (D.-Iowa). Both are committed enacting strict national guidelines regarding the use of physical restraints and seclusion in schools.
Updates from Membership
Lonna Moline, CCBD RSM
States are busy connecting with members!
Kim Rice, from ARIZONA, reported that they had a successful conference. It was their first CCBD conference and they had over 100 attendees. They are already talking about planning the next one. Keep on the lookout!
George Corbett, from Canada, reported that they too had a successful conference. They focused on ASD and had over 100 attendees.
Beverly Johns noted some upcoming conferences. Make sure to check them out if they are in your area: ILLINOIS February 1 & 2; INDIANA late April; and OHIO in June.
It is FABULOUS to see so many offerings for our members.
Interested in becoming more involved? We are looking for Head contacts in the following states: Alaska, Montana, California, Hawaii, Nevada, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, North Dakota, South Dakota, New Mexico, New York, New England, Tennessee, Virginia, Washington D.C., Alabama, North Carolina, and Canada. Please contact us!
AND, as always, if you are interested in becoming more active, we have a spot for you! ENGAGEMENT leads to FULFILLMENT! Join us for personal and professional growth!
Hope to see you in San Antonio for the National CEC Conference!Let me know what we can do for YOU-
Lonna Moline, CCBD RSM firstname.lastname@example.org
The Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders
is pleased to announce the location and date for our 2013 Conference:
“A Brighter Future: Prevention and Intervention on Behalf of Students with Challenging Behaviors”
September 25- 28, 2013 in Chicago, IL
Call for proposals coming in January 2013-- so get ready!
CCBD Nominations and Elections Committee Call for Nominees
The CCBD Nominations and Elections Committee requests self and suggested nominees for the following positions:
- Representative B
- Student Member at Large
- Nominations and Elections Committee
Interested members should submit the following to Diana Rogers-Adkinson email@example.com
- Statement accepting nomination
- CEC membership number of the nominee
- Statement that presents, in 1,000 words or less, the following:
- issues for the Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders (may involve students, professionals, or other issues);
- responses needed to deal with issues identified, and
- how the nominee, if elected, would respond to the issues while on the CCBD Executive Committee;
- Condensed resume or vita (maximum of three pages).
- A ballot statement describing nominee’s qualifications, perspectives, and/or goals. This will be included in the ballot verbatim, and length must not exceed 100 words.
Deadline for materials is December 21, 2012.